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자료유형 : NTIS
자료명/저널명 : Vulnerability of the United States' Oil Supply to Terrorist Attack
개인저자 : Stower, J. J.
발행처 : Marine Corps Univ., Quantico, VA. Command and Staff Coll.
페이지수 : 48p
내용주기 : This paper examines the vulnerability of the U.S. oil supply infrastructure (domestic and international) to terrorist sabotage, and the economic implications of such an attack. The U.S. possesses only 3% of the world's total oil reserves, yet uses approximately 25% of the world's oil. Because of this, the United States is dependent on external sources of supply. It imports about 50% of its total requirement, and 20% of these imports are from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). After the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, protection of the U.S. energy infrastructure became a key domestic issue for Washington, D.C. policy makers. Although many security measures were in place prior to 9-11, the emphasis was on safety, countering vandals, and stopping minor sabotage from the odd enviro-activist group. Domestically, the focus was not on terrorism. Feeding off the instability and volatility existing in the MENA region and elsewhere, terrorists threaten the infrastructure of the oil industry, internationally as well as domestically. Because of oil's volatile nature as a substance, its restricted flow through critical choke points, and its strategic importance to the global economy, the world's oil infrastructure offers lucrative targets for terrorists. The U.S. oil industry and the U.S. government are currently taking all reasonable steps to make the U.S. domestic infrastructure secure. The chief vulnerability, however, resides in the country's foreign sources of supply and the international oil transportation infrastructure. The mitigation of this vulnerability can be accomplished through several avenues. One way is to encourage and assist other oil-producing nations to secure all aspects of their infrastructure. Another way falls in the diplomatic realm, with the United States promoting worldwide security and stability. A third option is to hunt down and kill the threat.
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